If you have been looking into sculpture, you have likely asked yourself what it is. Sculpture can be defined as a type of art that is characterized by its use of metals, such as bronze and copper, to create three-dimensional works of art. However, there are many different forms of sculpture and the word sculpture can be used in a variety of ways. Some examples include traditional sculpture, sculptures in the Middle Ages, and sculptures of the Philippines.
The traditional sculpture is a three-dimensional art form that is produced by carving, sculpting, or molding materials. Initially, it was made of stone. Later, it was made of bronze or metal.
It was often created for ceremonial purposes. Many sculptures were also used for the adornment of buildings. In ancient Egypt, a large statue was usually created to memorialize a monarch. This type of work was also done in Mesoamerica.
During the 19th century, the term “sculpture” became broader. There were many small works based on the sculptural principle, and these included coins, medals, and hardstone carvings.
One of the most interesting developments in modern sculpture is the use of new materials. For example, some contemporary works use Styrofoam or cement to cover sculptures.
While sculpture has been in use for centuries, it is only relatively recently that new sculptural tools and techniques have been developed. The development of these new methods has enabled more artists to take on this task.
There is a huge variety of subjects in contemporary large sculpture. Many works feature animals. Although animals are the traditional subject matter for Chinese and Japanese stone sculptures, the subject is not always realistic.
Among the earliest forms of sculpture are petroglyphs. They are created by carving a section of rock and removing it from the surface.
Sculpture in the Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, sculptors worked on a variety of different materials. Some artists created kinetic sculptures, while others experimented with new materials. However, bronze and wood carving were two of the most popular media for these types of art. These were both used to create religious and private devotions.
Sculpture in the Middle Ages was meant to educate the public about religion. Often, these works of art would depict biblical or historical events. They also emphasized the promise of return from death. This type of sculpture is sometimes referred to as sarcophagus relief sculpture.
Many medieval sculptural scenes appear to have been inspired by pre-Christian religious cultures. Christians, on the other hand, carved crosses and holy images from wood.
The most common motif in medieval statues was the Last Judgment. It symbolized the fate of the righteous and the sinful before Christ as a judge. Most statues depict Christian religious figures.
Aside from being a powerful visual symbol, a sculpture can be felt. To achieve this, the sculptor would build the work from the inside out in a soft material such as clay or wax. He would then fire it, which hardens the material.
In ancient Greece, the human form was the most prominent subject of sculpture. Artists would often use white marble, a material considered to be aesthetically pure.
Sculpture in the Philippines
Sculpture in the Philippines dates back to the pre-colonial era. The earliest Filipinos imitated the movements of nature and animals. It evolved into an art form during Spanish rule.
Sculpture in the Philippines was a precursor to neocolonial and modern art. Modern sculpture introduced a wide variety of materials and media. These new forms expanded the scope of sculpture in the second half of the 20th century.
Today, the country’s National Museum has a collection of works that spans the 18th century to the present. Several of the most important murals are displayed in New York.
In the 19th century, Jose Rizal was a renowned poet, leader of the Filipino Propaganda Movement, and advocate of independence. His work La Venganza de la Madre was a National Cultural Treasure.
Ivory carving was also done by native Filipinos in the Philippines during the eighteenth century. Other mestizos from the Chinese mainland also worked in the art of ivory carvers. By the sixteenth century, more than 30,000 Chinese lived in the Parian area outside the city walls of Manila.
During the American period, Filipino artists like Fernando Amorsolo and Guillermo Tolentino became famous for their sculptures. This led to the establishment of the Academia de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado de Manila.