Sculpture was an integral part of ancient Egyptian art. It served to express people’s personalities and also served as a means for communication with the gods.
Through the centuries, statues were seen as extremely significant because they allowed people to connect with their departed loved ones in the afterlife. It was believed that statues could hold their deceased’s “ka,” or spiritual energy.
Ancient Egyptian art relied heavily on symbolism to convey messages to the gods. Colour also played an essential role, as it could be imbued with special powers and attributes.
The colours green, blue and gold were associated with plants, water and the sky; blue represented sunlight and gods’ skins; gold symbolized divinity and immortality; while black signified fertility and the Nile River. These hues were often painted onto statues or used to adorn temples and tombs.
A scarab beetle was a beloved symbol in ancient Egypt, especially during the First Intermediate Period. It symbolized evolution and rebirth and also represented Khepri – the sun god who was believed to roll dung into holes on the ground.
It was an amulet commonly found in the tombs of many pharaohs, believed to protect the soul from evil and direct it towards eternal bliss.
Another popular symbol in Egypt was the sistrum, a ceremonial instrument that resembled an ankh symbol and was associated with goddess Hathor. Shaking this instrument during Hathor’s festival brought good luck and rebirth in life; it was traditionally shaken during celebrations.
A cartouche was an iconic symbol in ancient Egypt. Typically circle-shaped, it had a strong connection to the sun and symbolized godly protection. It’s often paired with ouroboros symbol – snake eating its own tail – for added impact.
Stars were an important element in Egyptian art. Not only were they associated with the moon and sun, but also seen as a sign of life in the afterlife – which explains why stars were frequently carved onto tomb walls or temples.
Sculpture was the primary form of art in ancient Egypt and depicted the pharaoh, gods and priests. Unlike painting which depicted abstract representations of things and people, sculpture in Egypt was lifelike and exact.
In the Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom, statues were largely carved of wood. Cedar sculptures were especially popular, often showing both familiarity with human form as well as an expressionistic touch.
Egyptian sculptures from the beginning were crude and primitive, but over time artists refined their techniques to create more naturalistic pieces such as the Seated Scribe from Saqqara which employs paint and inlaid eyes for a realistic representation.
Consequently, the sculpture has an almost lifelike quality and could be seen as a fitting representation of a scribe – who at that time held an elevated social standing. Note the protruding stomach and seated pose of the figure along with its stylus which still remain immovable – all reflecting traditional conventions at play.
Another key element of the art was the use of ‘Frontality’ rules. This meant figures were placed on an axis and their proportions from head to body were dictated by this axis.
In the Middle Kingdom, figures were often depicted sitting or squatting with a cloak covering their shoulders. Not only that, but these figures would usually be adorned with crowns to signify their status.
The New Kingdom brought about a dramatic shift in Egypt’s art style, featuring an emphasis on one god and the Amarna style, featuring bodily peculiarities among kings and their queens that were often showcased through monumental sculptures such as those found at Karnak temples of Amenhotep III and Nefertiti that would later be dismantled.
Ancient Egypt employed a wide range of materials for sculpture. These included sandstone, limestone, Egyptian alabaster, anorthosite gneiss (a type of greenish-blue granite), marble, schist, clay and bronze.
Sculptures were crafted in an array of sizes and shapes, from large statues to tiny figurines. Additionally, sculpture was employed to adorn the walls of temples and tombs.
Most sculptures were carved from sandstone, though some also featured limestone or wood. They often had painted faces as well as inlaid eyes made of rock crystal or quartz.
These statues were of great significance in Egyptian culture, as they were believed to provide comfort for the kas (spirits) in the afterlife. These kas could see those who had passed away and provide assistance when necessary.
Pharaohs would adorn their tombs with artwork to aid them in the afterlife. Additionally, sculptures were erected within temples to appease the gods.
Egyptians sometimes employed bas-relief sculpture, which featured the background cut away so the image was much smaller than usual. Other types of reliefs included outline-reliefs and high-reliefs.
In the Old Kingdom, many pharaohs were carved from stone and these statues stood over 60 feet tall.
There were also statues that featured intricate details and were incredibly lifelike. Typically made from stone, they had inlaid eyes for added authenticity.
These statues were stunningly beautiful and often made from anorthosite gneiss – a hard and stunning stone.
Ancient Egyptian sculptures played a vital role in telling stories about their religion and offering people glimpses of their favorite deities.
Egyptian sculptures utilized a range of materials. Large statues were usually crafted from sandstone, while smaller ones were composed from limestone, Egyptian alabaster (a form of calcite), mottled rose granite, black basalt, and other stones.
They employed a range of metals and ceramics, often decorated with symbols or painted. Their pigments often contained gypsum, lapis lazuli, iron oxides, and other minerals.
Paintings were typically composed with flat washes, though artists could mix colors if desired. They usually used brushes made from twigs or palm ribs for painting.
Religious art often linked colours to specific symbols and precious metals. For instance, white was crafted from gypsum, while blues were created using desert sand, azurite and malachite.
Other popular colors used for paintings included red, brown, yellow and green. These were often inspired by nature or the sun gods’ hues.
Wooden sculptures were mainly crafted from native acacia, tamarisk and sycamore fig woods; some imported woods such as cedar and fir from Syria also found their way into these artworks.
Some wooden statues were painted, while others weren’t. These items were typically used for funerary or religious rituals but could also serve as decorative pieces.
Sculpture played an essential role in Egyptian religion and culture. It provided people with a way to communicate with the gods, serve as symbols of power for pharaohs, and preserve memories.
In the Middle Kingdom, a unique type of statue emerged. Block statues featured private individuals (usually men) in an upright position. Although less frequent in later centuries, you can still find this type of sculpture today.
Sculpture was an integral part of Egyptian culture, serving a range of functions. For instance, it could represent the lives of gods and other mystical figures; additionally, it depicted nature’s creatures such as animals and birds.
Ancient Egyptian artists prioritized function over form. This can be seen in their sculptures and reliefs, which were highly stable and conventional in design compared to later styles such as Greek or Renaissance art.
Another essential function of sculpture was to serve as a conduit for the spirit of its represented being to interact with earthly realm. This occurred in both divine cult statues (of which few remain) and royal pharaoh’s effigies.
Rituals were performed to bring these statues alive, including anointing, perfuming and even clothing them. Though often shrouded from public view, these figures still had a significant role in the lives of Egyptians.
Egyptians placed great value on aesthetic appeal as well. Therefore, certain characteristics such as symmetry and color were highly prized in their artworks.
Symmetry was an integral element in ancient Egyptian art, as it enabled artists to craft works that effectively communicated their message visually. For instance, red was often associated with the sun while other colors such as orange or yellow also carried symbolic significance. Symmetry also played a significant role in their designs since it allowed artists to ensure all pieces had similar placements.